The Order Of Al Nahda of the Kingdom of the Hijaz
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by Owain Raw-Rees, Dubai
Thanks to The Orders and Medals Research Society for their permission
The history of the Arab Revolt during the Great War is well documented but less well known are the details of the Order of the Al Nahda (Renaissance) which was bestowed by King Hussain Bin Ali of the Hijaz upon British subjects for their services during this period.
Foreign Office letter dated 31 December 1924.
We are receiving inquiries from various quarters as to the origin and general history of the Orders of El Nahda and Istiglal of the Hedjaz. I find that the Foreign Office have themselves no particular information on the subject: hence my appeal to you. Could you perhaps kindly let us know anything you can about these orders, their history, origin, purpose for which they were instituted, and membership? We shall then be able to satisfy the curiosity of such different personalities as the Danish Minister and a representative of Spinks."
At this time the Kingdom of Hejaz was in terminal decline and the acquisition of information was difficult. The response dated 28 February begins:
To produce a complete reply to your letter of December 31st I needed a few details from the Hejaz Government, and as they have been more deeply interested in shells (not the conchologist's kind) than in decorations the last few weeks, I have kept the Danish Minister waiting.
Black: ABBASID Caliphs of Baghdad.
Green: FATMID Caliphs of Egypt.
Red: Dhawi Aun Sharifs of Mecca, i.e. the progenitors of Hussein
The Order of the Istiqlal (independence) was founded later. The first insignia of the Order are stated to have been made in Paris in 1919; the later ones were made in Mecca. The purpose of the order is to distinguish persons who, though they did not necessarily take part in the revolt; have striven to maintain the independence of the Hijaz.
The colours of the Istiqlal are white, black and red only.
The writer then goes on to detail the allocation of the orders as follows:
|First Class, in brilliants||
King, Princes (Amirs i.e. rulers);
High commanders of the rank of Field Marshal.
Ministers of State; Ambassadors and Ministers (Plenipotentiary);
High Military Officers ("Staff Officers") Civil Officials of the highest class;
Military Commanding Officers;
Civil Officials and Dignitaries of the Second Class.
Civil Officials of the Third Class;
Respectable people; Tribal Chiefs.
Civil Officials of the Fourth Class;
Local people of corresponding status.
Civil Officials of the Fifth Class;
Finally the writer goes on to write:
If the kingship of the Hejaz should cease to exist, would there be a slump in these decorations, or would they, like a limited issue of postage stamps, become "rare" and expensive? It is always possible that Hussein would consider himself a sort of king "in partibus" and continue in that capacity to grant decorations.
Indeed upon the incorporation of the Hejaz into Saudi Arabia in 1925 both orders became Trans-Jordanian awards and awarded by King Hussein's son Abdullah, later King Abdullah of Jordan and they now have become Jordanian awards.
The details of the Order of Al Nahda are as follows:
Obverse: An ornate hexagonal design bearing a six pointed star with a palm frond between each arm. The bulk of the design bears a central circular plaque of two concentric circles. The outer bears uppermost the Arabic inscription, "Order of The Renaissance" and lowermost, "Of first (second, third, fourth and fifth) class, 1334" (The Hejira year 1334 corresponds to the period 9 November 1915 to 27 October 1916 inclusive). In the centre two crossed Hijazi flags with a five-pointed star in the centre and the inscription uppermost, "His Servant" and lower most, "Ali bin Al Hussein"
In all instances measurements vary to some degree.
Metal: Silver and silver-gilt. The manufacture of this award is in nine separate pieces consisting of a retaining pin with a floral head, crossed enamel flags of the Hijaz, a central boss, a surrounding circlet bearing the inscription, a circle of beading, the patterned border, a retaining backing, a suspension bar and finally a square retaining nut. The first and second class orders have within the design portions highlighted in gold.
Ribbon: Initially when instituted the sash was of a heavy cotton weave and the "ribbons" were made up of plaited coloured cords of black, green and white. These were later replaced with silk ribbons of the same pattern of the following pattern, green, white and black. At some later stage the following patterns of green, white and black with a thin central red stripe was adopted. The early patterns were of the following dimensions.
Sash: 156cms in length, being 78mm width of three equal stripes of black green and white. At the shoulder 16cm red silk patch is attached with gold thread thereby allowing the sash to mimic the flag of the Hijaz. The rosette from which the badge would be suspended is also of red silk, 55mm diameter. The later silk sash of the same pattern is some 166cms in length and 100mm in width. The red silk patch is of similar dimensions and the sash now has the traditional bow from which the badge would be suspended.
Cord: Approximately 80cms in length. This was affixed to the badge with a piece of red silk. The replacement of the cords by ribbon occurred either in late 1919 or early 1920 as a letter from the Arab Bureau in Cairo dated 28 May, 1920, reads as follows,
"King Hussein of the Hijaz has given the following ruling regarding the wearing of the "Nahda" Ribbon:- The Ribbon will be worn with the black portion to the right i.e. furthest away from the left shoulder."
Suspension: A small vertical Hashemite flag surmounted by a floreate design either affixed to the rear of the badge, with a loop either behind the flag through which the cord passes.
One of the early recipients of both the second and first class of the order was Sheikh Abdulkader Ibn Ali Al Shaybi. The Al Shaybi's were the hereditary custodians of the keys to the holy Kaba'a in Mecca.
The illustration shows him wearing both classes and an early version of the ribbon pattern. The Al Shaybi family strongly supported Hussein with Shaikh Hasan Al Shaybi being elected along with Abdullah in 1909 as the two deputies representing of Mecca in the Ottoman Parliament in Istanbul.
Whilst it appears that the initial manufacture of the order may have been French in origin subsequent awards were made by local silversmiths in Mecca. More recently as a Transjordanian and Jordanian decoration manufacture has been by jewellers in Cairo and Damascus, also by Garrard & Co. of London and Fahmy Tewfiq Bichay of Cairo.
In addition to the two orders two medals were also instituted - the Independence Medal and the Ma'an Medal. The former whilst not part of the Order of Independence, commemorates the proclamation of the Hejaz as an independent Kingdom in 1916 and was I believe instituted at some tine during the early 1920's. This medal along with the Order of Independence was retained by Prince, later King, Abdullah of Jordan, and was later used as an appreciation of service to Jordanian military and police personnel. The latter instituted on 5 May 1918 commemorates the fighting which took place during the period 16 to 22 April 1918. Ma'an, now a town in the south of Jordan, is where Abdullah, moved to in September 1920 to establish a forward base for his future political realm.
The photograph on the right is of The Order of Nahda, Fourth Class constituent parts from the author's collection.
British recipients of the Order of Al Nahda were published in the London Gazette. It is interesting to note that there were no awards made to British personnel of the Order of Al Istiqlal or of either of the two medals. However it must be noted that other awards of the Order of Al Nahda were made but not published in the London Gazette. It appears that notice of awards were announced by the Arab Bureau in Cairo who acquired details as published in Al Qibla, being the Royal Hijaz Official Gazette. In most instances it seems that the Arab Bureau then forwarded the brevets and decorations to the responsible authority for onwards transmission to the recipient.
The awards were announced on nineteen occasions between 24 October 1919 and 2 September 1924.
The illustration on the right is Reverend V.D.Siddons's medal group, comprising the Order of Al Nahda, 4th Class, Member of the Order of the British Empire (2nd type, military), Distingished Flying Cross (GVR), 1914 Star and Bar, British War Medal, Victory Medal with oak leaf spray, 1939-45 Star, Africa Star and 8th(?) Army Bar, Italy Star, Defence Medal, War Medal with single oak leaf.
Those recipients noted in the London Gazette are listed below, in alphabetical order within each class:
|With Brilliants||8 March 1920||Allenby, Viscount EHH, Field Marshall GCB, GCMG. (Commander British Forces Middle East.)|
|First||8 March 1920||MacMahon, Sir AH, Lt. Col. GCMG, GCVO, KCIE, CSI, Indian Army. (High Commissioner in Egypt.)|
|23 April 1920||Pelly, HB, Rear Admiral CB, MVO.|
|8 March 1920||Stack, Sir LF, T/Maj. Gen. KBE, CMG., Border Regiment, (Reserve of Officers).|
|23 April 1920||Wemyss of Wemyss, Baron W, Admiral of the Fleet, GCB, CMG, MVO, DCL. (Earlier Vice Admiral commanding East Indies Station.)|
|24 October 1919||Wilson, CE, Maj. (T/Lt.Col) CMG, DSO. Retired Pay Reserve of Officers. (Governor of Red Sea province of Sudan.)|
|8 March 1920||Wingate, Sir FR, Gen. GCB, GCVO, GBE, KCMG, DSO. (Governor General of Sudan.)|
|Second||24 October 1919||Basset, JR, Maj. (T/Lt.Col.) DSO, OBE, Royal Berkshire Regiment.|
|8 March 1920||Bols, Sir LJ, Maj. Gen. KCB, KCMG, DSO. (Chief of Staff to Allenby.)|
|23 April 1920||Boyle, WHD, Capt. CB, RN.|
|8 March 1920||Campbell, Sir W, Maj. Gen. KCB, KCMG,DSO. (Quartermaster General to Allenby.)|
|8 March 1920||Clayton, Sir GF, T/Brig. Gen. KBE, CB, CMG, Royal Field Artillery, (Reserve of Officers). (Sudan Agent, Head of Military Intelligence and Head of Political Intelligence Egypt.)|
|8 March 1920||Cornwallis, K, T/Col. CBE, DSO, Special List.|
|16 January 1920||Cox, CHF, Bt. Lt. Col. DSO, Royal Field Artillery.|
|8 March 1920||Dawnay, AGC, Bt. Maj. CBE, DSO, Coldstream Guards. (Head of Hejaz Operational Staff.)|
|23 April 1920||Fitzmaurice, R, Capt. DSO, RN.|
|9 April 1920||Godwin, CAC, T/Brig. Gen. CMG, DSO, Indian Army.|
|8 March 1920||Joyce, PC, Bt. Lt. Col. CBE, DSO, Connaught Rangers. (Attached Arab Army, later commanding British Section Arab Northern Army which included Hejaz Armoured Car Battery, Company Egypt Camel Corps, Flight of four aircraft and transport and labour detachments.)|
|8 March 1920||Lloyd, Sir GA, Capt. GCIE, DSO, Warwickshire Yeomanry. (Intelligence Service, Cairo.)|
|16 January 1920||Newcombe, SF, Bt Lt Col., DSO, Royal Engineers. (Intelligence Service, Cairo and later commander British Military Mission to Prince Faisal.)|
|30 September 1920||Pearson, HD, Lt. Col. DSO, Retired Pay, late Royal Engineers.|
|1 April 1920||Salmond, Sir WGH, Air Vice Marshal, KCMG, CB, DSO, (RA). (Commander British Forces Middle East.)|
|8 March 1920||Stirling, WF, T/Lt. Col. DSO, MC, Royal Dublin Fusiliers (Reserve of Officers). (General Staff Officer Arab Forces.)|
|9 April 1924||Taylor, BHW, T/Col. CBE, South Staffordshire Regiment.|
|16 January 1920||Vickery, CE, Bt. Lt. Col., CMG, DSO, Royal Field Artillery. (Forerunner of British Military Mission to Prince Faisal.)|
|30 Sepember 1920||Wavell, AP, T/Brig. Gen. CMG, MC, Royal Highlanders.|
|Third||8 March 1920||Bartholomew, WF, T/Brig Gen. CB, CMG, DSO, Royal Artillery. (Staff officer General Allenby's General HQ.)|
|1 April 1920||Borton, AE, Gp. Capt. CMG, DSO, AFC, Royal Highlanders.|
|25 March 1924||Braham, GN, OBE, MC, FRCS (Edin), Surgeon Royal Hospital Baghdad.|
|23 April 1920||Cavendish, EGC, Lt. Royal Navy.|
|8 March 1920||Cunningham, AB, Alt. Col. Royal Engineers.|
|16 January 1920||Davenport, WA, Maj. DSO, MC, West Yorkshire Regiment. (Attached Arab Army commanded detachment of Egyptian troops in the Hejaz.)|
|8 March 1920||Davies, GF, T/Brig. Gen. CB, CMG, CBE, Royal Army Service Corps.|
|25 March 1924||Dunlop, W, OBE, MB, ChB, Director of Royal Hospital Baghdad.|
|16 January 1920||Garland, H, T/Capt. MC, Special List. (Explosives instructor, Egyptian Army attached Arab Army.)|
|16 January 1920||Garrod, HStC, T/Capt. MC, Special List.|
|6 February 1922||Gayer-Anderson, RG, Maj. Royal Army Medical Corps.|
|16 January 1920||Goldie, HM, T/Capt. Special List.|
|16 January 1920||Gottleib, GAB, TLt. Royal Army Service Corps.|
|21 January 1921||Hindley, DCR, Capt. Indian Army Reserve of Officers.|
|12 January 1921||Hobbs, HFC, Capt. West Yorkshire Regiment.|
|8 March 1920||Hornby, HS, T/Capt. MC, Royal Engineers. (Attached Arab Army.)|
|23 April 1920||Linberry, TH Lt. Cdr. Royal Navy.|
|8 March 1920||Mainwaring, WRK, Maj. CBE, Denbighshire Yeomanry.|
|16 January 1920||Marshall, WE, Bt. Maj. MC, MB, Royal Army Medical Corps.|
|8 March 1920||McCheane, MWH T/Col. CMG, CBE, Royal Army Ordnance Corps.|
|8 March 1920||O'Hara, ER, T/Lt. Col. CMG, DSO, Royal Army Service Corps.|
|23 April 1920||Poignand, CA, Cdr, Royal Navy.|
|8 June 1920||Rashleigh, VS, Cdr, CBE, Royal Navy.|
|25 March 1924||Sinderson, HC, MB, ChB, Railway Medical Officer Baghdad.|
|22 March 1920||Snagge, AL, Capt. Royal Navy.|
|8 March 1920||Symes, GS, T/Lt. Col. CMG, DSO, Hampshire Regiment.|
|7 May 1920||Turnbull, GO, T/Lt. Col. DSO, 26th Punjabis.|
|27 December 1920||Warren, AG, Cdr. Royal Navy.|
|30 September 1920||Whitley, NHP, Capt. MC, 7th Battalion, Manchester Regiment.|
|1 April 1920||Williams, R, Wing Cdr, DSO, OBE, Australian Field Corps.|
|30 September 1920||Winterton, EA, Maj. TD, Sussex Yeomanry (TF Reserve).|
|8 March 1920||Young, HW, Capt. DSO, 116th Mahrattas Indian Army. (Attached Arab Army.)|
|Fourth||30 September 1920||Baker, DGRS, Maj. Indian Medical Service.|
|8 March 1920||Brackenbury, GH, Local Capt. Employed, Egyptian Expeditionary Force.|
|8 March 1920||Brodie, SH, T/Lt. MC, Royal Artillery.|
|8 March 1920||Clayton, IN, Capt. Royal Garrison Artillery.|
|15 August 1922||Cookson, C, MBE, Assistant Telegraph Engineer Egyptian State Telephones.|
|30 September 1920||Dixon, W, Capt. Bedfordshire & Hartfordshire Regiment.|
|8 March 1920||Dowsett, SG, A/Capt. Machine Gun Corps.|
|30 September 1920||Fox, HG, T/Lt. Royal Army Service Corps.|
|25 January 1921||Furness-Williams, FH, Capt. (No unit given.)|
|8 March 1920||Gilman, LH, T/Lt. MC, Machine Gun Corps.|
|8 March 1920||Goslett, RG, T/Capt. MC, Royal Army Service Corps. (Supply Officer.)|
|30 September 1920||Gray, WL, T/Lt. General List.|
|30 September 1920||Greenhill ES, T Lt, Machine Gun Corps (MGC)|
|8 March 1920||Grey, GOR, T/Capt. MC, Royal Army Service Corps.|
|30 September 1920||Grisenthwaite, AG, T/Lt. Machine Gun Corps.|
|9 May 1922||Hakim, Said H, Sub Inspector, Police Officer attached British Agency Jeddah.|
|1 April 1920||Hawley, FC, DFC, Australian Flying Corps.|
|1 April 1920||Henderson, T, Flt. Lt. MC, Royal Engineers. 2ic Arabian Detachment of 14 Squadron. Royal Flying Corps.|
|8 March 1920||Higgins, ES, A/Capt. Royal Warwickshire Regiment.|
|30 September 1920||Hinde, AR, T/Capt. Royal Army Service Corps.|
|8 March 1920||Holland, KG, T/Capt. OBE, Royal Army Service Corps.|
|30 September 1920||Hopgood, N, Lt. 7th Battalion Manchester Regiment (TF).|
|8 March 1920||Kirkbride, AS, T/Lt. MC, Labour Corps.|
|30 September 1920||Leith, MP, Lt. 4th Battalion Essex Regiment.|
|8 March 1920||Littleton, The Hon. CCJ, DSO, 7th Middlesex Regiment (TF).|
|8 March 1920||Mackintosh, CAG, T/Maj. Special List.|
|1 April 1920||Makins, AD, A/Flt. Lt. DFC (No unit given).|
|8 March 1920||Maynard, PG, T/Maj. DSO Royal Irish Rifles.|
|30 September 1920||McKibbin F, Capt, Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC)|
|25 March 1924||Mills, EA, MB Chb (Edin), Chief Pathologist Baghdad.|
|1 April 1920||Murphy, AW, Lt. DFC Australian Flying Corps.|
|1 April 1920||Nunan, SC, Lt. Australian Flying Corps.|
|25 January 1921||Oldfield, KG, Lt. DFC (No unit given).|
|8 March 1920||Pascoe, GC, T/Lt. Royal Field Artillery.|
|8 March 1920||Peake, FG, Capt. West Riding Regiment. (Commander Egyptian Camelry.)|
|27 December 1920||Perkins, GTW, Lt.Cdr. Royal Navy.|
|1 April 1920||Peters, GC, Lt. DFC Australian Flying Corps.|
|8 March 1920||Powell, A, Local Lt. Employed Egyptian Expeditionary Force.|
|8 March 1920||Pratt-Barlow, EA, Bt. Maj. King's Royal Rifle Corps, (Reserve of Officers).|
|8 March 1920||Ramsey, GCR, T/Capt. MB, Royal Army Medical Corps.|
|8 March 1920||Ryder, AH, T/Capt. General List.|
|27 December 1912||Salt, Sir JWT Bt. Royal Navy.|
|8 March 1920||Scott, RH, T/Maj. DSO OBE General List.|
|8 March 1920||Shah, Hasan, Ressaidar, MC 9th Hodson's Horse.|
|1 April 1920||Siddons, VD, Lt. DFC Northamptonshire Regiment, Flying Officer. Arabian Detachment of 14 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps.|
|1 April 1920||Smith, Sir RM, Capt. KBE MC DFC AFC Australian Flying Corps.|
|30 September 1920||Spence, HGC, T/Lt. Royal Army Service Corps.|
|2 September 1924||Stafford, WG, Lt. (now Flying Officer) MC, DCM Officer. Arabian Detachment of 14 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps|
|25 January 1921||Stent, FW, Sqn. Ldr. MC, Flight Commander .Arabian Detachment of 14 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps.|
|2 September 1924||Thomson DN, Lt, Queens Own Glasgow Yeomanry and Royal Flying Corps (QOGY & RFC)|
|30 September 1920||Tookey, HC, T/Lt. Labour Corps.|
|30 September 1920||Wade, EH, T/Lt. MC Machine Gun Corps.|
|30 September 1920||Walker, TW, Lt. Royal Army Service Corps.|
|27 December 1920||Ward, EH, Lt. Cdr. Royal Navy.|
|30 September 1920||Whitley, NHP, Capt. MC 7th Battalion Manchester Regiment.|
|8 March 1920||Wordie, W, Maj. OBE Royal Army Service Corps.|
Brevets accompanied each award and that belonging to Lieutenant V. Siddons is translated as follows:
The Hashimi Diwan.
The Slave of God.
Hussein Bin Ali.
The truthfulness and sincerity of Lieutenant V. Siddons to our Hashimite Throne, and his valuable services and righteous endeavours in the Great War having been proved, we have issued our Royal Decree to confer upon him the High Order of the Renaissance as a reward for his deeds and as an appreciation of his sincerity.
May God grant a good reward to benefactors. Issued this ninth day of Moharram 1338.( 7th October 1919).
Three awards not listed in the London Gazette but noted in correspondence from the Arab Bureau in Cairo to Headquarters R.A.F. Middle East are as follows:
|Second Class||Al Qibla, No.382, 10 May 1920||Air Commodore RM Groves, CB, DSO, AFC.|
|Fourth Class||Al Qibla No. 385, 20 May 1920||Flight Lieut. H. Hindle James.|
|1st Shaban 1338||Captain FRLMS McKibban, Royal Army Medical Corps|
Captain McKibban's award was forwarded along with a brevet which is translated below,
The Hashimi Diwan
The Slave of God
Hussein Bin Ali
As Captain FRLMS McKibban is one of those who showed faith and loyalty to our throne and from his distinguished service, we have issued our Royal Order to grant him the Fourth Class Order of the Renaissance as a reward for his service and appreciation of his loyalty.
May God grant reward to benefactors. Issued this First day of 1st Shaban 1338.
The text is somewhat different from that in Lieutenant Siddons's Brevet implying the such brevets were individually written out as circumstances dictated.
There will be no doubt other such un-gazetted awards with the obvious omission from the above list being Lawrence. It is thought that he was awarded the Second Class of Order of Renaissance, in recognition of his services to the Hijaz Government. His name is believed to have been listed in Al Qibla No. 320 of 9 Muharram 1339, corresponding with 7 October 1919. However as it is known that Lawrence had no time for awards and decorations it is quite possible that he refused the order.
Awards of the Order of Al Nahda continued. In 1923 Lord Headly, a British peer who had converted to Islam, visited the Hijaz to perform Haj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, being one of the five pillars of Islam, and was invested by King Hussein with the First Class of the Order.
Also during 1923 some of Russian pilots had been engaged to pilot the Hejaz Air Force and, "taught an Arab to fly a little". The success was recorded in the Mecca press as though the feat were equal to our cross-Atlantic flight, and the Arab received a decoration. Unfortunately one of them hardly had time to pin on the decoration awarded him by the King when he smashed to fragments the only plane they are allowed to touch.
As with many monarchs King Hussein was not averse to presenting awards to further his own status and in May of 1924 after declaring himself Caliph earlier in the year, "gave a high decoration to an important Javanese official." This did not achieve its aim as the ensuing letter of thanks, "said quite clearly that if King Hussain thought the gift of a decoration could buy the recipient's recognition of him as Caliph, he was jolly well mistaken."
The photograph on the right is of the Order of Al Nahda, First Type Sash in silk. The one shown is damaged and is from the author's collection.
The British Government in turn rewarded member of King Hussain's forces. These are detailed in War Office List No. 53 of 19 December 1919 and such awards are introduced as follows:
The following are among the decorations and medals awarded by command of His Majesty the KING at various dates to subjects of Allied Powers, for distinguished services rendered during the course of the campaign.
Decorations Awarded To The Arab Army
To be Honorary Companions of the Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.)
Major Jaudet Ali, Camel Corps, Sherifian Army.
Major Risar Bey Askari, Sherifian Army.
Lieutenant-Colonel Abdul Hamid Ibrahim, 4th Regiment Sherifian Army.
Nuri Bey, Sherifian Army.
Lieutenant-Colonel Malud Bey, Sherifian Army.
Major Rasim Bey, Sherifian Army.
To be awarded The Military Cross (M.C.)
Major Abdulla Bey, Sherifian M.G.C.
Captain El Said Subhi El Amari, Sherifian Army.
Captain Faud, Sherifian Army Medical Corps.
Lieutenant Yusal Handul, Sherifian Army.
Major Jemil Bey, Sherifian Artillery.
2nd Lieutenant Saadulla Mohammed, Sherifian Army.
Lieutenant Muhammed Effendi Khalil el Zahawi, Sherifian Army.
Captain Mahmud Bey, Sherifian Army Medical Corps.
Lieutenant Ahmed Naji, Sherifian Army.
Lieutenant Hassan Nasra, Sherifian Army.
Captain Mahdi Rahal, Sherifian Army.
Captain Tahsin Bey, Sherifian Army.
In addition to the above awards whilst researching this article at the Public Record Office in Kew I discovered that the award of the British War and Victory Medals were made to two members of the "Hedjaz Army." I have yet to ascertain why only these two individuals were awarded medals as opposed to any others however their details from the Medal Rolls and their individual records are as follows,
|Name:||Tahsin Ali, M.C. (Also awarded the Ma'an Medal).|
|Rank:||Rais Awal (Senior Captain), 1st N. Inf. Bn. Qaid (Colonel), Camel Battalion.|
Theatre of Service Palestine
|Name:||Abdul Razzak. ( Also awarded the Ma'an Medal).|
|Rank:||Commandant, Telegraph and Telephone Company.|
Theatre of Service Semnat between Aquaba and Mahmal.
The Kingdom of the Hijaz was short lived with King Hussain abdicating in October 1924 in favour of his son Ali. Hussain was exiled to Cyprus, eventually dying in Amman in 1930. Ali himself departed the Hijaz in December 1925. His departure signalled the formal end of the Kingdom of Hijaz. In January 1926 was Abdul Aziz was declared King of Hejaz and the Sultan of Nejd and its Dependencies - in January 1927 this became King of Hejaz, Nejd and its Dependencies. Britain, the once trusted ally of Hussein, in June of 1926 concluded an agreement formally recognising Abdul Aziz's achievements. On 22 December 1932 the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was proclaimed reflecting a unity which Hussein even with the support of external forces was never able to achieve.
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1. Public Record Office, London Foreign Office Series FO 686/143 Jidda-Consular Series.
2. PRO Reference WO 329/2346.
3. War Office List No. 53, 19th December 1919.
4. The Hijaz Expedition 1916-1917, Capt. T. Henderson, M.C., 1917
5. 'T.E.Lawrence' In Arabia and After, Liddell Hart, 1934, (1945 Reprint).
6. Royal Hashemite Orders Decree No.1 1947 Royal Jordanian Gazette.
7. Iraq Today, Ministry of Interior, Baghdad, May 1953.
8. The Order of Al Nahda, E. H. O' Toole, The Medal Collector, June 1964.
9. The Order of Independence, E. H. O' Toole, The Medal Collector, August 1964.
10. Orders & Decorations of All Nations, R. Werlich 1974.
11. King Husain and the Kingdom of Hejaz, Randall Baker, 1979.
12. Ribbons and Medals, Cdr. T. Dorling, 1983.
13. King Abdullah, Britain and the making of Jordan, Mary C. Wilson, 1987.
14. T.E.Lawrence: His Orders, Decorations and Medals, Ronald D. Knight, 1989.
15. King Abdul Aziz and the Kuwait Conference 1923-4, M. M. Abdul Aziz, 1993.
16. Two Kings in Arabia, Sir Reader Bullard's Letters from Jeddah, 1923-5 and 1936-9, Edited by E. C. Hodgkin, 1993.
17. "Wissam Ma'an, Wissam Hashimi," Dr. H. A. Al Saraira & M. S. Al Tarawni, Department of history, Mu'tah University, Al Karak, Jordan, 1994.
18. Orders, Decorations, Campaign Medals and Militaria, Auction Catalogue, Spink & Son Ltd., 17 December, 1997.
19. Correspondence with St John Armitage CBE, Ivor Bush, Roger Bragger and Jim Routledge.